Why aren’t there more angry women? – Global affairs

Source: World Economic Forum.
  • Opinion by Joseph ChamiePortland, United States)
  • Inter Press Service

Women make up half of the world’s population and clearly play a vital role in the development, well-being and advancement of humanity. However, women continue to suffer discrimination, abusive treatment, misogyny degrading abuseand subordinate functions in virtually all important spheres of human activity.

Despite treatment, discrimination and subordination, most women do not express anger. If the situation between the two sexes were reversed, men would certainly be angry and would certainly take the necessary steps to change the inequalities.

Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted almost seventy-five years ago applies all rights and freedoms equally to women and men and prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex.

Some 40 years ago, the international community of nations adopted the Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women. YMMore recently, the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 5 aims to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.

Without prejudice to the various declarations, international agreements, conventions, platforms for action, and Progress achieved in recent decades, women continue stay behind men in rights, freedoms and equality.

From the beginning of life in some parts of the world, girls are often viewed less favorably than boys. In many societies, boys are still preferred over girls. In too many cases, son preference has resulted in a sex ratio at birth that is skewed in favor of boys because of to pregnancy interventions by pairs.

The natural sex ratio at birth for human populations is about 105 men per 100 women, although it can range from 103 to 107. Currently, at least seven countries, including the world’s two largest populations, have skewed birth sex ratios reflecting son-preferential pregnancy interventions ( Figure 1).

Source: United Nations.

China and India have skewed sex ratios at birth of 113 and 110 males for every 100 females, respectively. High sex ratios at birth are also seen in Azerbaijan (113), Viet Nam (112), Armenia (111), Pakistan (109), and Albania (109). In contrast, for the period 1970-1975 when pregnancy interventions by couples were not yet widespread, the sex ratios at birth for those seven countries were within the expected normal range.

Also in some countries, the imbalance in the female sex ratio continues throughout women’s lives. For example, India, Pakistan, and China, which together account for almost 40 percent of the world’s population, have sex ratios for their total population of 108, 106, and 105, respectively. In contrast, the population sex ratios are 100 in Africa and Oceania, around 97 in North America and Latin America and the Caribbean, and 93 in Europe (Figure 2).

Source: United Nations.

In terms of education, although progress has been made in recent decades, girls continue to lag behind boys in primary education in some countries, especially in Africa, the Middle East and South Asia. For example, 78 girls in Chad and 84 girls in pakistan are enrolled in primary school for every 100 children.

Among young women between 15 and 24 years old approximately quarter they are not expected to finish primary school. Also, about two-thirds of the world’s illiterates are women.

With regard to decision-making, women do not have political representation or levels of participation similar to those of men. Worldwide, the estimated percentages of women in national parliaments, local governments and managerial positions are 26, 36 and 28 percent, respectively. Even in developed countries like the United States, women make up 27 percent of Congress, 30 percent of statewide elected executives, and 31 percent of state legislators.

Women’s labor participation is also considerably lower than that of men. Globally in ages 25 to 54, for example, 62 percent of women are in the workforce compared to 93 percent of men. Also, the majority of employed women, or 58 percentthey are in the informal economy, earn comparatively low wages and lack social protection.

In general, women are employed in the lowest paid to work. Women around the world earn around 24 percent less than men, with 700 million fewer women than men in paid employment.

Women do at least twice as much unpaid care as men, including childcare, housework, and care for the elderly. Unpaid care and domestic responsibilities often add to women’s paid work.

Increasing men’s participation in housework and caregiving would contribute to a more equitable distribution of these important domestic responsibilities. Additionally, government provision of childcare for families with young children would help both women and men combine employment with family responsibilities.

A global comparative measure of the position of women in relation to men by region and country is gender parity index. The index considers gender gaps in four fundamental dimensions: eeconomic participation and opportunity, educational achievement, health and survival, and political empowerment.

The regions with higher gender equality are Western Europe and North America with parity indices of 78 and 76, respectively. In contrast, the regions with lower gender equality are South Asia and the Middle East and North Africa with parity indices of 62 and 61, respectively (Figure 3).

Source: World Economic Forum.

With regard to countries, top five The countries with the highest gender equality are Iceland, Finland, Norway, New Zealand and Sweden, with parity indices ranging between 82 and 89. the last five The countries with the lowest gender equality are Afghanistan, Yemen, Iraq, Pakistan and Syria, with parity indices between 44 and 57.

Source: World Economic Forum.

In addition to the four fundamental dimensions of the gender parity index mentioned above, other important areas that reflect the subordination of women include misogynysexual harassment, domestic abuse, intimate partner violenceand conflict-related sexual violence.

Globally, it is estimated that 27 percent of women ages 15-49 had experienced physical or sexual violence from long-term intimate partners, often in long-term relationships Negative effects in the health of women and their children.

Also, civil conflicts in countries like Ethiopia, Myanmar, South Sudan and Syria have submitted alarming reports of sexual violence against women. More recently, conflict-related sexual violence by the Russians cash in Ukraine, which has contributed to renewing attention by the international community to the sexual violence faced by women in conflict situations.

Sexual harassment of women is a widespread worldwide phenomenon. Most women have experienced it, especially in public places, which are often considered the domain of men with the house being considered the place for women. the reported percentages of women who have experienced some form of sexual harassment in India and Viet Nam, for example, are almost 80 and 90 percent, respectively.

In addition to harassment, women in places like India face risks of cultural and traditional practices, human trafficking, forced labor and domestic servitude. In addition, the sexual harassment of women in the workplace are responsible for driving many to give up of their jobs.

Again, if men were experiencing the misandry, discrimination, abusive treatment, harassment, and subordination that women endure, they would be angry, intolerant, and would no doubt turn to government officials, legislatures, courts, businesses, rights organizations and even the streets. to demand equality. Women should seriously consider the actions that men would take if inequalities were reversed.

With women continuing to lag behind men in rights, freedoms, and equality, the perplexing question that remains is: why aren’t more angry women?

jose chamie is a consultant demographer, former director of the United Nations Population Division, and author of numerous publications on population issues, including his recent book, “Births, Deaths, Migrations, and Other Important Population Issues.”

© Inter Press Service (2022) — All rights reservedOriginal source: Inter Press Service

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